Risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor and/or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor: a nationwide study Gábor Sütő, Gergő A Molnár, Gyorgy Rokszin, Ibolya Fábián, Zoltan Kiss, Zoltán Szekanecz, Gyula Poór, György Jermendy, Peter Kempler, István Wittmann
Mortality and disability in diabetes mellitus are determined mostly by cardiovascular complications and cancer. The impact of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) monotherapy or combination on long-term complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus was studied.
Research design and methods
Patients with type 2 diabetes treated with DPP-4i or SGLT2i during a 3-year period were identified in the database of the National Institute of Health Insurance Fund in Hungary. All-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), lower limb amputation (LLA) and cancer were assessed. Outcomes of add-on SGLT2i to DPP-4i treatment in comparison with switching DPP-4i therapy to SGLT2i were also evaluated. After propensity score matching, survival analysis was performed with a Cox proportional hazards model.
After propensity score matching, both SGLT2i and DPP-4i groups included 18 583 patients. All-cause mortality (HR, 0.80; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.94; p=0.0057), HHF (HR, 0.81; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.92; p=0.0018), and risk of cancer (HR, 0.75; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.86; p<0.0001) were lower in the SGLT2i population compared with DPP-4i. Risk of LLA was higher in the SGLT2i group (HR, 1.35; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.77; p=0.0315). SGLT2i in combination with DPP-4i results in lower all-cause mortality (HR, 0.46; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.67; p=0.0001), with a lower trend in stroke, LLA, HHF and cancer, but without any statistical difference.
SGLT2i treatment leads to a lower risk of overall mortality, HHF and cancer when compared with DPP-4i treatment. Adding SGLT2i to DPP-4i instead of switching from DPP-4i to SGLT2i further lowers the risk of all-cause mortality.